Paid Time Off (PTO) in Connecticut
No state laws govern PTO. It is only necessary to follow established policy and employment contracts.
Vacation Leave Quota
0 days. Vacation isn’t required under Connecticut law.
In Connecticut, an employer isn’t required to offer employees vacation benefits, either paid or unpaid. If an employer chooses to offer such benefits, it must concur with the terms of its established policy or employment contract. Vacation is a mandatory subject of collective bargaining in a unionized workplace and must be stipulated by a collective bargaining agreement.
Vacation accrual is not required in Connecticut but is widely used by companies. Sick leave must be accrued for certain employers.
An employer may legally cap (set a limit) the amount of leave that an employee may accrue, preventing an employee from accruing or earning vacation over a certain number of hours.
A Use-It-or-Lose-It policy is allowed. Employers are not obligated to let their employees carry over unused leave into the following year.
Connecticut is a Use-It-or-Lose-It state. In a Use-It-or-Lose-It vacation policy, an employer doesn’t pay employees for unused vacation leave at the end of the year. Instead, the employee loses their remaining vacation days, unpaid. A Use-It-or-Lose-It policy is not defined by state law, so it depends on the employer’s contract or company policy.
Statutory Provisions Addressing Vacation Pay
Vacation time is not included in “wages.”
If an employer offers a vacation, the amount of vacation time an employee is entitled to be governed by the employment contract terms or collective bargaining agreement. “Wages” don’t include vacation time.
Payment of accrued, unused vacation on termination
The law doesn’t specify, so the employer’s policy or employment contract governs whether the earned but unused vacation is paid upon separation.
Employers may establish a policy or contract refusing payment for accrued vacation leave upon employment separation.
The contract or policy may also disqualify workers from payment for vacation leave upon separation from employment if they don’t follow specific requirements such as giving 2 weeks’ notice.
An employer must pay accrued vacation time to an employee upon separation only if its policy or contract requires it.
Employees may recover two times the amount of unpaid wages if the employer has a policy and does not follow it. An employer could face a fine of $200 to $5,000 or a sentence of three months to five years in prison, depending on the amount owed.
An employer pays for accrued, unused vacation upon termination.
Sick Leave in Connecticut
Federal law requires 12 weeks of unpaid sick leave. Connecticut has paid sick leave.
Federal Laws – Leave Quota
First, employers need to follow the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA). This act allows certain employees to take up to 12 weeks of unpaid, job-protected leave each year for family and medical reasons (severe illnesses, maternity/paternity leave, or if the employee needs to care for a spouse or child).
Employees are suitable for FMLA if they have worked for their employer for at least 1 year, completed a minimum of 1,250 hours over the past year, and worked at a location where the company hires 50 or more employees within 75 miles.
Connecticut paid sick leave law
In addition to the FMLA, Connecticut has a mandatory sick leave law, which provides 1 hour of paid sick leave for every 40 hours worked.
Eligible employers and employees
The law is aimed at large employers. Employers with 50 or more employees in any quarter of the last calendar year are required to provide paid sick leave to their service workers.
Service workers are defined as employees who:
- work in one of 68 designated occupational classifications determined by the Federal Bureau of Labor Statistics (an occupation with one of the “broad or detailed occupation code numbers and titles” listed under Connecticut law)
- are paid hourly
- are not exempt from the minimum wage and overtime pay requirements of the FLSA (Fair Labor Standards Act).
The law doesn’t cover federal employees, certain employees of manufacturers, non-profit organizations, or temporary and day laborers. It does include, however, part-time workers. To be eligible for paid sick leave, employees must work an average of at least 10 hours per week.
Accrual rate and maximum
Employees accrue 1 hour of paid sick leave for every 40 hours worked. Sick leave accrual is capped (maximum) at 40 total hours per year.
Service workers can roll over up to 40 hours of sick leave from one year to the following; yet, they are only legally entitled to use up to 40 hours of sick leave in a year.
Paid sick leave use
Workers can use this time for their or their spouse or child:
- mental, physical illness, injury, or health condition
- medical diagnosis, care, or therapy for a mental or physical illness, injury, or health condition
- preventative medical care
Workers can also use this leave for domestic/family abuse or sexual assault, including medical care or psychological counseling.
Although employees begin accruing sick leave on the day they start working for an employer, they can only use accrued sick leave after they’ve worked for the company for 680 hours. Employees who work eight-hour days are eligible for paid sick leave after 85 days on the job.
Employers can’t punish employees who request or use eligible paid sick leave.
An employer pays for this sick leave.
Connecticut Family and Medical Leave (CTFMLA)
Aside from the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) and paid sick law, Connecticut must follow Connecticut Family and Medical Leave (CTFMLA). Employees in Connecticut may be eligible for either state or federal family medical leave.
Employers with 75 or more employees are required by state law to give their employees job-protected leave up to 16 workweeks of unpaid leave every 24 months for family medical leave. Employees are eligible for leave if they have been with the company for at least a year and have worked at least 1000 hours in that time.
To be eligible for this type of leave, you must have gone through one of the following situations:
- An issue with physical or mental health
- Adopting a child, giving birth to a child, or becoming a foster parent
- Having to look after a family member who has a severe illness
- To donate bone marrow or organs
- Any qualifying difficulty in which the employee’s spouse, child, or parent is called or ordered to active duty in the Armed Forces.
This leave is unpaid.
Paid Family and Medical Leave Act (PFMLA)
The Connecticut Paid Family and Medical Leave Act was enacted on January 1, 2022. However, employers had to begin taking pay deductions from employees starting January 1, 2021.
Employees in Connecticut fund paid leave benefit through a mandatory payroll deduction. At first, the deduction rate is capped at half a percent (0.5 percent). Each employee’s wages are deducted up to the Social Security contribution base ($142,800 in 2021).
Beginning Jan. 1, 2021, employers started withholding employee contributions of one-half of one percent (0.5%) of the employee’s wages up to the Social Security contribution base. Collected contributions must be remitted to the authority every quarter. For 2021, the payments were due by March 31, June 30, September 30, and December 31, 2021.
The program is noteworthy not only for its novelty but also for its scope. The program covers all Connecticut employers with at least one employee. Self-employed people and sole proprietorships are eligible to apply. Employees must earn a certain amount of money to be eligible. Employees in Connecticut are eligible for PFMLA benefits if they earned $2,325 in the highest-earning quarter of the previous four quarters (the “base period”) and are currently employed, and have been employed within the last 12 weeks.
The reasons covered under the existing Connecticut Family and Medical Leave Act (CTFMLA) include:
- The birth of a child of the employee or placement of a child with the employee for adoption or foster care.
- The need to care for a family member with a severe health condition.
- A serious health condition of the employee.
- Service as an organ or bone marrow donor.
- A qualifying difficulty related to the employee’s spouse, son, daughter, or parent being on active duty or having been notified of an impending call or order to active duty in the armed forces.
- Reasons related to family violence.
Eligible employees may receive up to 12 weeks of paid leave in a year. Employees who are eligible may receive up to 95 percent of their regular weekly pay, with a cap of 60 times the state minimum wage.
www.ctpaidleave.org is the authority’s website. Employers can access various tools and resources from the authority on this website, including fact sheets, videos, and other literature.
Employees in Connecticut fund paid leave benefit through mandatory payroll deduction.
Maternity, Paternity, FMLA in Connecticut
12 weeks of unpaid maternity/paternity leave provided by FMLA.
The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) is applied to employers of 50 or more workers and provides 12 weeks of unpaid maternity/paternity leave to parents excepting a child. For more information about FMLA, look above under the section Sick Leave in Connecticut => Federal Laws – Leave Quota.
Additional Maternity and Paternity State Laws in Connecticut
In addition to the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) and the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA), Connecticut has 3 important laws regarding Maternity and Paternity Leave: the Connecticut Family and Medical Leave (CTFMLA), Paid Family and Medical Leave Act (PFMLA) and the Pregnancy Discrimination and Accommodation in the Workplace.
Connecticut Family and Medical Leave (CTFMLA)
This leave can be taken for the birth or adoption of the employee’s child or the placement of a foster child with the employee.
Employees are allowed to take a job-protected, unpaid leave of up to 16 weeks off per 24-month period. It’s worth noting that the CFMLA only applies to companies with 75 or more employees. Employees are only eligible for parental leave if they have worked 1000 hours in the preceding 12 months.
An employee must provide advance notice for leave due to the birth or adoption of a child and planned medical treatments.
Paid Family and Medical Leave Act (PFMLA)
The Connecticut Paid Family and Medical Leave Act went into effect on January 1, 2022. Nevertheless, employers had to take pay deductions from employees starting January 1, 2021.
Eligible employees must have been employed for at least 12 months and worked at least 1,000 hours in the preceding 12-month period.
Benefits under the new law are generous. Employees who are eligible may take up to 12 weeks of paid leave in a 12-month period, with an additional two weeks available in the event of incapacitation due to a pregnancy-related health condition. Employees who are eligible may receive up to 95 percent of their regular weekly pay, with a cap of 60 times the state’s minimum wage.
For more information about PFMLA, look above under the section Sick Leave in Connecticut => Paid Family and Medical Leave Act (PFMLA)
Employees in Connecticut fund paid leave benefit through mandatory payroll deduction.
Pregnancy Discrimination and Accommodation in the Workplace
Employers with three or more employees must provide the following benefits to their employees:
- unpaid pregnancy leave due to disability related to pregnancy or childbirth, typically 6 to 8 weeks
- protection against discrimination related to pregnancy, birth, or other related conditions such as breastfeeding
- reasonable accommodations, job protection, and reinstatement.
An employer can’t require an employee to take the leave if a reasonable accommodation is available.
Bereavement Leave in Connecticut
Employers in Connecticut aren’t required to provide paid or unpaid bereavement leave.
No federal or Connecticut law requires an employer to provide the employee with paid or unpaid bereavement leave or time off to organize or attend a close family member’s funeral. Employers may decide to provide bereavement leave and, in that case, may be required to follow any bereavement policy or practice they have in place.
Jury Duty Leave in Connecticut
The employer must provide an employee with 5 days of paid, job-protected leave. After that, the state pays.
In Connecticut, the employers are not only required to give employees leave for jury duty, but they are required to pay normal wages for the first 5 days spent at jury selection or jury duty. This is a rare guarantee, as most states only require that employees be provided with unpaid leave for serving on a jury.
Full-time employees (working 30 hours or more per week in a non-temporary or casual position for more than 90 days) are entitled to regular pay for the first five days of employment, followed by a $50 reimbursement from the state, with no further entitlements.
Employers must pay full-time employees regular wages for the first five days of jury service unless the Chief Court Administrator excuses the employer from compensating the employee. Employers must submit a written request to the Chief Court Administrator to be exempt from paying jurors. To justify exempting the employer from the compensation obligation, the Chief Administrator must determine that the employer is experiencing severe financial hardship. In cases where an employer is excused from compensating an employee for jury service, the state will pay the employee for the first 5 days of jury service, not to exceed $50 per day.
According to Connecticut law, no employer may fire, threaten, or coerce a worker who receives a jury summons, responds to the summons, or serves on a jury.
The first 5 days of the trial.
Starting on the 6th day of service.
Military Leave in Connecticut
An employer must allow their employees to take unpaid leave.
Connecticut employers are required to allow employees of the U.S. armed forces or the National Guard to take unpaid leave to perform military duty, including attending meetings or drills, in addition to abiding by the federal USERRA. Employees who take leave may not lose vacation or holiday benefits or be unfairly discriminated against for promotion, continued employment, reemployment, or reappointment.
Employers subject to Connecticut Family and Medical Leave must allow an employee up to 26 workweeks in any 12-month period to care for a family member injured in the line of duty. The 26 weeks of leave may only be taken once by the employee while employed.
Military leave is unpaid.
Voting Leave in Connecticut
Employers must provide two hours of unpaid time off for voting.
Employees must be allowed 2 hours of unpaid time off from their regularly scheduled work day on the day of the election beginning June 23, 2021.
Employees shall be granted two hours of unpaid time off from their regularly scheduled workday on the day of any special election for a United States senator, a representative in Congress, a state senator, or a state representative.
Employees must request time off for voting at least two working days prior to the election.
The voting leave entitlement, approved as a provision of the state budget bill, is valid until June 30, 2024.
Voting leave is unpaid.
Connecticut State Holidays for 2022
Private employers are not required by Connecticut law to provide holiday leave to their employees.
A private employer can demand an employee to work holidays in Connecticut. An employer is not required to pay an employee premium for working on holidays, such as 1½ times the regular rate, unless the employee qualifies for overtime under the legal overtime laws. In case an employer chooses to give paid or unpaid holiday leave, it must follow its established company policy or employment contract.
Complete list of official holidays recognized and celebrated by the state of Connecticut in 2022:
|Saturday, January 1||New Year’s Da (Observed Friday, December 31, 2021) *|
|Monday, January 17||Martin Luther King, Jr. Day (3rd Monday in January)|
|Saturday, February 12||Lincoln’s Birthday (Observed Friday, February 11) *|
|Monday, February 21||Washington’s Birthday (3rd Monday in February)|
|Friday, April 15||Good Friday|
|Monday, May 30||National Memorial Day (Last Monday in May)|
|Monday, July 4||Independence Day|
|Monday, September 5||Labor Day (1st Monday in September)|
|Monday, October 10||Columbus Day (2nd Monday in October)|
|Friday, November 11||Veterans’ Day|
|Thursday, November 24||Thanksgiving|
|Sunday, December 25||Christmas Day (Observed Monday, December 26) *|
* Holidays that fall on Sunday are observed on Monday; holidays that fall on Saturday are observed on Friday.
- Connecticut’s Official State Website – Workforce Laws and Regulations, https://portal.ct.gov/Services/Jobs-and-Employment/Employee-Rights/Workforce-Laws-and-Regulations
- The Connecticut labor law guide, https://joinhomebase.com/state-labor-laws/connecticut/
- Connecticut Payroll and Benefits Guide, https://www.papayaglobal.com/countrypedia/country/united-states-connecticut/
- Connecticut Paid Leave Authority (PFMLA) – Official Site, https://ctpaidleave.org/s/?language=en_US
- Connecticut Jury Duty, https://www.cbia.com/resources/hr-safety/issues-laws/if-your-employee-is-called-to-jury-duty/
Updated: June 22, 2022.
Check out our Leave Laws page to learn more about laws in various countries.